Cultural Differences in the Treatment of Genders in Classroom Interactions as Observed in Mexico and Southern Indiana
& Alicia Strickland
Gender Schema Theory- Bem 1981, 1983.
Promotion of males social dominance- Hendrick & Stange, 1994.
Differences in praise and punishment- Good & Brophy 1994.
Hispanic Masculinity: Myth or Psychological Schema Meriting Clinical Consideration (Casas, J.M., 1994).
The Terminology of Machismo (Gaitan, M., 1975).
In Womenís Hands (Winn, P., 1992).
Marianismo- an ideal of female conduct based on the Virgin Mary, affirming womenís moral superiority but prescribing a life of humility and self sacrifice.
Machismo- aggressive assertion of male domination and chauvinism.
Males will interact more and will be treated better in the classroom than will females.
It is further hypothesized that the responses in hypothesis one will be seen in the classrooms in Mexico, to greater extent.
U.S. males = 99, females = 90
Mexico males = 186, females =99
The raters will mark their observations using a modification from Spielbergerís Looking in Classrooms observational checklist (inter-rater reliability = .96).
Category C. Type of Behavior
1. Brief, non-disruptive- Sneeze, drop books, not an intentional action
2. Minor, but extended or repeatedly disruptive- Whispering, talking, intentional actions
3. Very disruptive- Spit wads, screaming etc.
4. Inattentive- Daydreaming, not listening
5. Offers minimal contribution- I donít know, does not participate
6. Correct contribution- Answers correctly- participation that adds to class discussion
7. Incorrect Contribution- Answers incorrectly
Category D: Teacher Responses
Ignores student behavior
Calls Student Out
Open ended feedback
Two female raters
Observed each class for 55 minutes
Used checklist to record interactions as they occurred
Results- Mexico Behaviors
Results: Teacher Responses to Correct and Incorrect Contributions
Results-Correct and Incorrect Contributions Between US and Mexico
(4) = 9.03, p>.05 n.s.
(4) = 32.09, p<.05
Results: Correct and Incorrect Contributions Within the US and Mexico
US Male and Female Students
(4) = 10.20, p < .05
Mexico Male and Female Students
(4) = 16.12, p < .05
Hypotheses was partially supported
2 female observers- gender bias
Private school in Mexico
Correlate to Gender Roles
Distinct difference between U.S. and Mexico and the way problems were handled.
Longitudinal or cross-sectional study. (ages)
Are there any questions?
Results: Teacherís responses to disruptive behavior
Results- Disruptive behaviors between the US and Mexico
(4)= 13.64, p<.05
(4)= 67.38, p<.05
Results- Disruptive behavior within the US and Mexico
U.S. Male vs. Female
Mexico Male vs. Female
= 2.01, p<.05